People read for novelty and story. The risk readers face is spending their time without learning anything useful or feeling anything profound.
That's why I use my first draft to find novel ideas. Novel ideas are typically:
Then I use my second draft to make those novel ideas resonate—via:
In other words:
Writing Quality = Novelty x Resonance
That's our writing framework.
Specifically, novelty is new information that is significant and not easily intuited. You find novel ideas by pursuing your curiosity and noting what interests and surprises you.
Resonance is how you help ideas take root in readers' minds. It's the art of capturing imaginations and relating to life experiences.
One of my favorite writing tricks is to only write my introduction. Then I hand it to friends and ask:
"After reading this, what are the most interesting ideas I could possibly cover in the rest of the post?"
They can give you novel ideas that are better than your original intentions. This is how you de-risk your article from lacking novelty or utility.
Amazon has a similar strategy for deciding which products to launch. They start by drafting a fake PR announcement—as if the product were about to launch. They share the announcement only with employees. If their employees aren't interested in buying the product, Amazon goes back to the drawing board. They've saved years of misguided work.
That's our theme for this page: finding the best idea to write about. We'll cover:
The best topic to write about is the one you can’t not write about. It’s the idea bouncing around your head that compels you to get to the bottom of it.
You can trigger that state of mind with a two-part trick.
Part one is choosing an objective for your article:
Part two is pairing your objective with a motivation:
Your objective clarifies what you're trying to accomplish, and your motivation ensures you actually see it through.
That’s all that's needed to write with conviction: pair an objective with a motivation. When writers lack one of these, they tend to not finish their articles.
If the right objective and motivation combo isn't coming right away, that's okay. Start writing to uncover what's in the back of your mind. As you write, a clear objective eventually emerges. At that time, do a ground zero rewrite with your objective as the central thrust.
Once you've chosen what to write about, the next step is uncovering what to say.
Which idea, of all those swimming inside your brain, are you compelled to pursue the way Ahab was driven to hunt Moby Dick?
In school, you were taught introductions do two things:
Ignore that advice.
Your only objective is to hook readers into reading the rest of the article.
It doesn’t matter how you hook them, so long as you eventually fulfill the hook.
A hook is not a gimmick. It’s a fundamental psychological principle: A great intro—like an electrifying opening to a film—buys goodwill with readers. Buy enough goodwill and readers look past the weaker parts of your post—because they're chasing the high from your great opening. A hooky opening is an insurance policy.
A hook is any half-told story. You raise a question and tease part of the answer:
Hooks tease your best talking points and relate them to readers' lives. They switch on the storytelling machinery in readers' heads.
Hooks serve two purposes:
We don't need the answers to our hooks—yet. At this point, we're just trying to find the most interesting questions we can possibly pose.
Let's look at a few hooks.
With a narrative hook, you share the beginning of a profound change in circumstances, but you withhold the conclusion.
Provide just enough details for readers to feel emotionally invested.
My clothes turned to ice. I swapped them for a fresh pair—then realized I hadn't actually brought another pair.
The clothes I removed suddenly took with the wind off the mountainside.
I was now clothesless standing on an arctic summit. I had no way of avoiding full-body frostbite and death by hypothermia.
It was 3 AM and there wasn't a soul within miles.
That was the day I lost everything. And this is the story of what happened next.
With a research hook, you highlight fascinating findings—but only a portion.
I tracked all 90 living individuals who were born without the ability to sense pain.
80 of them are living normal lives by following strict day-to-day regimens.
The remaining 10, however, are defying everything we know about what it means to survive. They've led to the discovery of fascinating new drugs.
With an argument hook, present a bold claim but withhold how you arrived at it.
There's a 90% chance that Cloudtex goes bankrupt within thirty days. This post walks you through the startling corruption that triggered their demise.
For a hook to resonate, readers must be given enough context to care about the rest of the story.
Therefore, our intro must accomplish two things:
When you identify a good hook, you've also identified a compelling idea to explore in the rest of your post.
And that's the point: great hooks force you to write something novel.
If you can't find good hooks on your own, ask others what questions on your topic they most want answered. Find the answers then turn those into hooks.
If you don't care to learn about the ideation process, you can skip half this guide and continue at Page III (Rewriting) for rapid fire advice on improving your writing.
A good intro tends to follow this structure:
Study how the intros below (1) hook you with a half-told story and (2) explain the importance of their idea so that you care to hear the rest of the story.
I’ve been running an experiment for the last few years. Each time I catch up with a friend, I ask them to describe the moment in their life when they felt most alive.
I noticed something interesting about their responses.
Over 90% of them describe a travel experience. Maybe it’s the time they backpacked Europe. Or the time they went bungee jumping in Australia.
Nearly everyone associates their most alive moment with traveling, despite the fact that we spend less than 5% of the year away from home.
But there’s another way to live where travel is not the rare escape. In fact, there’s a simple shift in your habits and beliefs that will have you feeling more alive than ever—without even leaving your city.
Flying forty feet in the air while dangling from little strings, dropping off a cliff and realizing you stuck the landing, whooshing down perfect powder lines—these are my bliss. I’m not alone. My community, my network, my people: we chase this flow together.
There is only one catch: I’m almost always the only woman.
Investor-sponsored networking boondoggles have taken me to Maui to kitesurf, to Whistler for downhill mountain biking, and into the backcountry of British Columbia to chase the snow. Nature's ultimate playground is Silicon Valley’s ultimate networking. I’d feel honored to be invited as the only woman, but I’m the one sponsoring half the events, and I too can’t find more gals who want to join.
The sports I play require skill, training, and time. More fundamentally, these sports require a willingness to get dirty, maybe get a little battered, and take a few risks.
These same risks (and luck!) are required to join the ranks of the world’s richest persons (all men), or master Wall Street (mostly men), or raise a big VC round (97% men). The ability to take risk defines success in today's world.
So why am I always the only woman? Am I different? Or is something more basic—more fundamental—going on that anyone can learn but is by default blind to?
—Susan Coelius Keplinger
Think of hooks as a force that pulls readers in.
There’s also a negative force that pushes readers away: their skepticism.
Skepticism often outweighs the strength of your hooks, causing readers to abandon your writing. You can do something about this.
In your intro, consider proactively countering any major skepticisms—if they exist. There are five types of skepticism to counter:
If you successfully hook readers plus neutralize their skepticism, you generate goodwill: now they're invested in reading the rest of your post. That's the insurance policy we talked about.
Below is the introduction to my Build Muscle handbook. I've identified the passages used to address skepticism.
This handbook is the result of a year's research into what the latest science shows is the most efficient way to build muscle.
↑Address the Untrustworthy objection: reassure readers you have the requisite wisdom to be authoratitive.
It's for both men and women. It's primarily for beginners, but there's plenty of science-backed advice for intermediates too.
I wrote this guide because much of the casual weightlifting advice is unsubstantiated or misleading. I can't blame bloggers for it, because some of the facts in this guide have not been broadly published outside of the scientific literature.
As a result, this handbook contradicts some popular bodybuilding recommendations, including the myth that women have a harder time gaining beginner muscle, that exercise rest times should be kept to 1–3 minutes, that most body weight exercises are useful, that machine exercises are ineffective, and so on.
Throughout this handbook, I support my claims by citing studies and showing you how to measure your weekly gains so you can confirm you're growing.
Speaking of growth, if you're starting without muscle, you can grow it fast if you're diligent about eating, exercising, and sleeping. You can gain up to 12-15lbs (6.8kg) of muscle in 3 months when closely following a researched program such as this. (Afterward, muscle gains slow drastically.)
↑ Address the Superficial objection: reassure readers you’ll share new knowledge they don’t already have.
These results are achievable for every man and woman. Having “bad genetics” is not a thing preventing beginners from gaining muscle. That's another myth.
In addition to thoroughly citing research, this guide is also comprehensive. I dislike tutorials that provide 75% of what you need to know then leave you with questions.
We'll learn what the research says about:
↑ Address the Irrelevant objection: reassure readers you’ll cover topics they care about.
Inspired? Good. If you weren't willing to spend 1–2 years in the gym to get results before now, be excited because you can compress beginner gains into 4 months.
Oh, and I have nothing to sell you. This handbook is free. There's no promotion.
↑ Address the Implausible objection: reassure readers you can deliver on your claims. In this case, I use the truth that I'm not trying to sell them anything.